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Prior to the beginning of the 19th century in Russia the cold weapon was produced by certain gifted master. This production on Tula, Sestroretsk and other small-arms factories was minor, even incidental as the firearms were the main production of plants. Generally the cold decorated weapon for an imperial yard, the court and military nobility was bought in the largest weapon centers of Western Europe: Solingen and Klingental. Purchase prices constantly grew, because of what there were economic difficulties which put Russia in dependence on foreigners. Alexander 1 enjoined to organize to the senate the domestic center for production cold and including the decorated weapon. The Ural small town as well as possible was suitable for implementation of this task the Silver-tongued orator where there was a good metallurgical base: at that time the Zlatoustovsky iron and steel foundry let out high-quality grades of cast iron, iron and steel. Low prime cost was provided with use of work of serfs and possibility of fast delivery of production on a dense network of the neighboring navigable rivers.

If the infantry had a sword mainly, a main type of a cold weapon of regiments of a heavy cavalry - dragoons treated them and created in Russia in 1731 cuirassiers - the broadsword is. It is a version of the kolyushche-cutting weapon with a direct, long and wide blade. In the second half of the XVIII century hatchets come in the stead of swords at ordinary soldiers of infantry. The sword remains on arms of officers, except it officers and corporals had different types of the drevkovy weapon of the West European type: протазаны, halberds and эспонтоны. In the XVII century these samples already practically had no former fighting application and played only supporting role at constructions, and in battles could serve as a reference point at an alignment of ranks.

For the organization of production of the cold decorated weapon the Imperial government invited high-class specialists armourers from the weapon centers of Germany known at that time for the whole world — Solingen and Klingentalya. Among them there were good experts on processing of steel: molding, forging and polishing of blades, manufacture of a sheath, manufacturing of hilts and art furnish of the weapon.

The best masters of Solingen — Wilhelm Nikolay (father) and Wilhelm Lyudovig (son) Shafy who has arrived to Russia in December, 1815 were the first artists-armourers at Zlatoustovsky weapon factory. To 1817 they were the unique masters of discharge and gilding of blades at Zlatoustovsky factory. Critics 19 — the 20th centuries, investigating trade development, note that Shafy possessed more design art, rather than art. They skillfully combined blades with a form of a handle, a frame and a sheath, but drawing with which the weapon was decorated was held down and dry and wasn't perceived as uniform integral composition. Halberds, and also swords, in a significant amount produced sabres, broadswords and hatchets at the Tula small-arms factory. So, from 1736 for 1756 for Russian army more than 150 thousand units of a cold weapon were made. The most part was made by swords. Especially a lot of weapon produced during wars.

In the first half of the XIX century a broadsword as well as swords, start to be replaced with sabres. For a cavalry of a sample of 1827 two more additional handles have a sabre hilt. Then the dragoon sabre of a sample of 1841 came to change to this weapon of Gard of this sabre consists тол of one crosspiece passing to a lobby of protection) a handle.

Much in common with a sabre has other appearance of a cold weapon - a draft. Sometimes this two look happens quite difficult to distinguish. The draft also has the bent odnolezvinny blade, but its hilt usually consists of the handle without metals. This weapon is borrowed the people of the Caucasus at first by Cossacks, and later it becomes the authorized weapon of Russian army.

Zlatoustovsky journeymen of German artists-armourers quickly adopted skill of manufacturing of an engraving and surpassed the teachers both in equipment of execution and in a variety of a miniature. Since 1818 all weapon at factory was decorated by Russian masters after with honor passed the first examination: To Petersburg, in department of Mountain and hydrochloric affairs nineteen blades decorated without any help from outside Shafov were sent. These products received the highest assessment of members of the commission of a state quality control of those times. Soon Shafy noted that at Zlatoustovsky factory there was the style of an ornament of the blades, not similar on zolingenovsky. In some years they left from the Silver-tongued orator, having continued the business in Moscow.

On Zlatousta Square near the station the monument to Ivan Bushuyev — to one of the first, one of the best engravers of weapon factory is established. About life of this artist it is known a little, even historians established death date on the latest works dated 1833. But its affairs are forever entered in history of development of trade. Ivan and Efim Bushuyev together with group of teenagers brothers Telezhnikovs and Lepeshkov and Ivan Boyarshinov came to be trained to Shafam in craft. Before these children were trained at factory school in drawing and painting, constantly improving the skills. Therefore, within a short period of time, they took up art of an ornament of the arms on such height on which the Zlatoustovsky engraving on steel from the middle of the 19th eyelid till the end of 20 — the beginnings of 21 centuries didn't fly up any more. Russian engravers improved technological process brought of Germany and masterfully it seized. Unlike Shafov which put an engraving on a small part of a surface of a blade, And. Bushuyev began to use all plane for drawing of the composition difficult and sated with a various ornament. Later Bushuyev and his companions entered into an arsenal of ornaments complex subject compositions, miniatures on subjects of Russian history. Bushuyev found that side which allows to consider his works as masterpieces. Citizens named him Ivanko-Krylatko for ease and grace of an ornament of steel products.

After each take-off there are falling. Hard times didn't pass also shop of the decorated weapon. Passed celebrations of anniversary of patriotic war and orders for the decorated award weapon decreased. Production was reduced to 40 — 50, and sometimes to 10 — 20 pieces a year. In 1834 shop of the decorated weapon closed, and masters transferred to other shops. The care of engravers and art trade was assumed by Pavel Petrovitch Anosov (the inventor of Damask steel). At the beginning of 1810th it built factory, then was there the director, and later — the managing director of the Zlatoustovsky mountain district. Using modern terminology, P. P. Anosov — the first top manager of Zlatoustovsky weapon factory. He achieved public orders for manufacturing of the decorated weapon, then expanded the range of let-out production for the purpose of preservation of production of an engraving. At P. P. Anosov the shop of the decorated weapon began to let out life subjects: table knifes and forks, trays and larets, candlesticks, caskets and so forth.

The Zlatoustovsky engraving on steel received a world fame in 1829 and the next years, having become the constant participant of industrial exhibitions. At the end of the 19th century there was a new method of drawing of drawing on a product — punching: the image received, doing a print by the press of mastic. In a large number there were the low-standard products made by this method. The big period of decline of trade so began. At the beginning of the 20th century the art industry and some national crafts were captured by a modernist style which made harmful impact on Zlatoustovsky masters. There were knickknacks for sale in salons. Artificial inventing of any special difficult forms, turned a thing into nonsense. Creative crisis poured out in the next closing of shop of the decorated weapon in 1909.

In 1919, in the hardest conditions, the shop started to let out a cold weapon for Red Army. Receding kolchakovets ruined factory. The equipment took out to the cities of Siberia. Art products from the engraving shop, possessing historical value, disappeared. In 1920 the Silver-tongued orator was visited by M.I.Kalinin. On meeting it sounded the task put by the Soviet government: to revive engraving art, most to approach and enter it into people life.

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Date: Saturday, 19 May 2012
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